Sunday, January 12, 2020

Information Age & its Impact on United States Essay

number of propositions. It implies that there is more information now than ever before an indisputable claim. The concept also implies that more people spend more time producing and using more information than ever before another indisputable assertion. Beyond that, the Information Age also suggests that the role of information is more important in the economy than ever before, and that information is replacing some earlier â€Å"fuel† of the American economy (Duncan 1994). These days the primary problem for most organizations and their employees is not the shortage of data but being able to evaluate what is useful and what is not, where to find the good stuff, and then how to use it effectively (Computer Weekly 2005). During the past 25 years, the industry has changed from simple data processing techniques high profile information technology. The challenges of data quality, regulation, access and exploitation are rapidly increasing in urgency (Computer Weekly 2005). For any organization effective information management will make the difference between coping with a dreary burden or using information to gain clarity and build new opportunities. The extended theory founded on this core belief divides U. S. economic history into different eras, depending on the primary economic activity during the period (Duncan 1994). From colonial times until late in the 19th century, the American economy was agrarian. Then, roughly from the dawn of the 20th century through the end of the Second World War, it was preeminently a manufacturing economy. Industry especially heavy industry was the motor that drove the entire economic engine. After World War II, the American economy increasingly came to be dominated by its service sector. By the mid-1950s, more than one-half of all U. S. employment was devoted to providing services rather than to fabricating goods (Duncan 1994). The Pre-Information Age business office was supported by the hierarchical managerial system to keep track of employees and the work they produced (Dmytrenko 1992). Office equipment included information producing tools, such as typewriters and adding machines. Most of the equipment was simple, manual in operation, bulky, and noisy. Clerical staff primarily used this equipment, as they were the appointed information processors of the time. Early efforts to improve office efficiency used industrial engineering techniques, employing time and motion studies to standardize the work tasks of office support staff, and maximize the workflow through effective office design. Information management was categorized as an intensely manual recordkeeping process (Dmytrenko 1992). Filing systems (alpha and/or numeric), and cross-referenced indexes were the prevailing records management techniques employed, and to be on the safe side, offices maintained multiple copies of the same document for back-up purposes. These practices resulted in increasing demands for office space dedicated to files. One source of confusion is the fact that the movements from manufacturing to services, and then to information, were of a different character than in earlier transitions. In the first place, while the transition from an agricultural to a manufacturing-based economy was marked by a decline in the number of jobs in agriculture, there has been no such diminution in the number of manufacturing jobs after the shift to a service economy. Moreover, American manufacturing currently accounts for roughly the same percentage of U. S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as three decades ago (Duncan 1994). As a further complication, many argue that the services sector of the economy simply cannot be seen as a separate segment or an economic subsystem. These observers instead insist that it â€Å"serves† precisely the manufacturing sector it is supposed to have replaced and remains dependent even parasitic on manufacturing (Duncan 1994). Moreover, coming up with clear definitions and boundaries for the information industry is, on reflection, a highly complicated undertaking. The Pre-Information Age home was supported by very basic home appliances. These appliances were either on or off, and the home-user manually directed the status. Outside of some minor kitchen improvements, and the advent of television, the average person saw home advancements limited to seasonal color changes, such as â€Å"avocado green† stoves (Dmytrenko 1992). Ongoing changes prevailed in the automobile industry, but slowly. Overall the era was devoid of any electronic â€Å"intelligence. † Business and the home were very separate and different worlds. The predominant orientation was that working people went to work to work, and the home was a place not to work. The telephone was the only information technology common to both the office and home.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Plato s Apology And Crito - 976 Words

Throughout, the history of western civilization religion and politics have been put together and associate with the major the historically events that have marked the history of humanity in earth. In the following written works, Plato’s apology and Crito, The gospel according to Mark and Date’s inferno, in each of these work religion and politics are intertwined to show the impact of these in each character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics is affected by religion and vise versa. In Plato’s Apology and Crito are two consecutive plays that explain how Socrates, which was considered an honored and the most wise man in all Athens by the oracle is sentenced to death by because he did not want to admit his wisdom and the importance of the Gods. In the Apology and Crito, it is seen how religion and politics are linked when Socrates is declared by the Delphic oracle the most wisest man in the whole Athens because unlike other people in Athens he knows he does not know anything, â€Å"I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing.† Apology, Socrates. Socrates beliefs in the Gods, especially Apollo, but by going against what the oracle says he faced political issues. After, his declaration Socrates is taken in a trial and he is accused of corrupting the youth and not believing what the Gods told the oracle. In his speech Socrates tries to defend himself by questioning one of his accusers, Miletus and using a series ofShow MoreRelatedPlato s Apology And Crito983 Words   |  4 Pagesevents that have marked the history of humanity on earth. In the following written works, Plato’s Apology and Crito, The Gospel According to Mark, and Dante’s Inferno, religion and politics are shown to be intertwined, which emphasizes the impact of each individual character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics are affected by religion and vice versa. Plato’s Apology and Crito are plays that explain how Socrates, who was considered an honored and the wisest man in allRead MorePlato s Apology And Crito977 Words   |  4 Pagesevents that have marked the history of humanity on earth. In the following written works, Plato’s apology and Crito, The gospel according to Mark and Date’s Inferno, in each of these works religion and politics are intertwined to show the impact of these in each character in each written work. Also, these written works explain how politics are affected by religion and vice versa. In Plato’s Apology and Crito, are two consecutive plays that explain how Socrates, which was considered an honored and theRead MoreAnalysis Of Plato s Apology And Crito Essay1857 Words   |  8 Pages Final Paper The word â€Å"philosophy† can be defined as someone’s theory as to how one should live their life. For Socrates, in Plato’s Apology and Crito, the concept of the human soul drives the actions in which he lives his life. His view of the purpose for one’s actions differs from that of his fellow Athenians, who viewed physical pleasures – money, status, power – as the most important objectives in life. Within his own argument to the Athenian jury against the importance of bodily pleasuresRead MoreTry to Persuade Socrates Friends to Save Him Against His Will1191 Words   |  5 PagesTry to persuade the Socrates`s friends to save him, against his will. Socrates Is one of the most colorful figures of the ancient Greek world, who the strangeness of privacy life have always been of special philosophical and political science. He was convict to death because he does not believe in God and corrupted the youth people to do the same. In Plato`s dialogue Crito, Socrates spent his last time in the prison. Crito is coming to save Socrates and have plans how toRead MoreComparison Between Crito and Apology1661 Words   |  7 PagesComparison between Crito and Apology For these two articles that we read in Crito and Apology by Plato, we could know Socrates is an enduring person with imagination, because he presents us with a mass of contradictions: Most eloquent men, yet he never wrote a word; ugliest yet most profoundly attractive; ignorant yet wise; wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to avoid his unjust execution. Behind these conundrums is a contradiction less often explored: Socrates is at once the most Athenian, mostRead MorePlato s Life And Accomplishments874 Words   |  4 PagesPlato, a Greek philosopher, was born in Athens, in 428 B.C. under the name Aristoles. In his youth, he was a wrestler, that’s how he got the name ‘Plato’, that was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat, his shoulder were broad and his forehead was flat. He won a few trophies for wrestling but never made it to the Olympics at Olympia. He later change more toward the arts, and he wrote plays, and poetry, but in never won in any of his writin g competitions. â€Å"Having failed to win an Olympic goldRead MoreCritism in Plato2608 Words   |  11 Pagesthe Republic, Plato claims that only a very few individuals are capable of understanding how human life is to be lived. If it could be done, the rest of us would be best off it we were to let out lives be controlled by such individuals. This position held by Plato has been one of much discussion and disagreement over the years. In this paper I will attempt to give my own insight and stand on Plato s position and will evaluate his position as it emerges throughout the Apology, the Crito and the RepublicRead MoreSocrates World Views1549 Words   |  7 Pagesof this paper is to discern and construct the world views of Socrates through the various readings, lectures and videos that we have seen in class. Some of these sources include: Socrates by G. Rudebusch; excerpts from The Last Days of Socrates by Plato; and The Allegory of a Cave. Of the nine world views covered in cla ss, I will delve into my interpretation of four of them as seen through the various sources that we have been exposed to in class. These four world views will include Death, ConditionRead MoreSocrates Sides with Creon or a1379 Words   |  6 PagesSocrates#8217; Sides With? Through my reading of Plato#8217;s Apology of Socrates and Crito, I have been able to see how Socrates makes important decisions and what he primarily bases his decisions on. As a individual person we have individual morals which lead us to our own moral or immoral decisions. Sometimes are own morals or beliefs might oppose the views of the state or the enforced law that clams to find justice. In this case we rely on our own beliefs that may be through passedRead MoreEssay on Socrates Fight for Justice1101 Words   |  5 PagesPlato’s works Apology and Crito there is an attempt by Socrates to defend himself in court and defend his choice to receive the death penalty when found guilty. Although he makes very valid and strong arguments throughout one can only wonder why such a wise person would choose death over life. The following essay will analyze three quotes from Apology and Crito, find the correlation between them, and reveal any flaws that may exsist inside these ar guments made by Socrates. In Plato’s Apology Socrates

Friday, December 27, 2019

Research Proposal on Music and Rhetoric

Introduction Over the course of history there has been a close relationship between rhetoric and music; this is especially evident in the Baroque period (rhetoric). Until relatively recently in Western society, music was an form primarily focused on vocals, and consequently words were of extremely high importance. Due to this trend, composers were usually inspired by rhetorical principles when coalescing text and music (rhetoric). Likewise, even after instrumental-centered music became popular, rhetoric principles continued to be relied on in creating both vocal and instrumental music. What is still largely unclear is how the interrelationships influenced the craft of composition. This is partly due to the lack of education in rhetorical disciplines among modern musicians and scholars as since the start of the nineteenth century the disciplines have mostly vanished from most educational and philosophical systems (rhetoric). Only in the early twentieth century did music historians find again the significance of rhetoric as the foundation of musical concepts in the previous centuries. Therefore there are still wide gaps in knowledge about the hiatus where rhetoric disappeared from musical research history. Rhetoric has played a major role in the creation and composition of music over the centuries, and this importance is only recognized in part. In order to gain a full understanding of the relationship between rhetoric and music, these gaps need to be filled. Furthermore, learning a true extent of the relationship between the two elements will vastly help modern day, and indeed future, musical scholars to develop the practice. The relationship between music and the rhetoric in the medieval period is, in particular, lacking knowledge. This is the period I wish to explore. Concept/Definition I plan to briefly study the relationship between music and the rhetoric over the past centuries, for as far back as I can find information. This is in order to gain an overall knowledge and grounding in the subject. I also wish to conduct research into music at beginning the beginning of the nineteenth century. At this time, the use of rhetoric in music was at its most popular. I plan to ascertain exactly how the disciplines were taught with relation to music. Once these initial stages of research are complete I plan to study a wide range of sources with information on the relationship between rhetopric and music through the Renaissance and Baroque periods, as this is largely where the gaps in research are across history. I wish to cross reference different sources and draw comparisons between the oratory and performance of music from the start of the sixteenth century through to the late eighteenth century. I am primarily focusing my research on the baroque period, but an overall understanding of the periods surrounding it will provide my research with more substance and clarity. In conducting my research, I plan to analyze the key German Baroque musical figures as this will place the subject into a deeper context. Entering the Conversation McCreless, P. P. McCresless’ article Cambridge History of Western Music Theory is within the book Cambridge Histories. The book is probably the first in depth history of Western music theory that is available in the English language. It explores a wide range of theory in music. Mortimer Wilsons book, The Rhetoric of Music: harmony, counterpoint, musical form, is available online as it is an old book. It was originally published pre-1923 and has more recently been reproduced digitally. Wilson gives an excellent insight into how the rhetoric of music was taught around the time of original publication. These are just two important sources of discussion around my chosen subject area. I plan to use the first-hand information provided by Wilson and cross reference with McCresless overall history and, of course, many other important subject. I then hope to bring the knowledge of the relationship between the rhetoric and music of the baroque period, primarily, uptodate and report on it in an accessible and modern fashion. Methodology In conducting my research I plan on spending time in the library searching out relevant literature and, in particular, books dating back to the early nineteenth century. In addition to this I will spend considerable time on the web, locating useful scholarly journals. Another advantage to the web is that it provides access to some books that have long gone out of print. Conclusion So far I have identified between five and seven sources that I believe will be valuable in conducting this research project. Of these I have also listed the particularly relevent chapters/sections within each one. As I work through the information I am beginning to see where the gaps are in my general knowledge of the subject as well as in the research topic itself, and I am currently searching for additional sources through which to cover this. My next stage in completing the research paper is to begin to cross reference the various sources, and also to construct a time line; in other words, I need to sort the information into a more user friendly order. Bibliography McCreless, P. â€Å"Cambridge History of Western Music Theory†. Cambridge Histories. 26 Feb. 2011. http://histories.cambridge.org/extract?id=chol9780521623711_CHOL9780521623711A029 Wilson, Mortimer. The Rhetoric of Music: harmony, counterpoint, musical form. South Carolina: BiblioBazzar, 2009. Print. Tarling, Judy. The Weapons of Rhetoric: a Guide for Musicians and Audiences. Herts, UK: Corda Music, 2004. Print. Bailey, Alex. â€Å"The Rhetoric of Music: A Theoretical Synthesis†. Google Books. 1 March. 2011. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eqlLAilrxHMCprintsec=frontcoverdq=The+Rhetoric+of+Music:+A+Theoretical+Synthesis,%E2%80%9D+by+Alex+Bailey+source=blots=TkXiX55axosig=csVmAw6DcwJsIG8kvoQnj4sGDHEhl=enei=p61xTby8PIaphAf10rk9sa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1sqi=2ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepageqf=false Bartel, Dietrich. â€Å"Music poetica: musica-rherorical figures in German Baroque music†. Google Books. 1 March. 2011. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=p45OwxQB05YCprintsec=frontcoverdq=Musica+Poetica:+Musical-Rhetorical+Figures+in+German+Baroque+Music.+By+Dietrich+Bartelsource=blots=vEbf2gXa1Isig=yMIPn6r1wdKnNmUfMsKi9eq0QRghl=enei=J7FxTYrWC4KDhQfC7p1Ssa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepageqf=false

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Personal Statement Personal Health And Wellness Essay

PHLS 150 Personal Health and Wellness Personal health and wellness are important factors towards life because without health, our quality of life would suffer greatly. There are many factors that contribute to health and wellness; some can be managed, but many are out of our control. Below are four main topic that caught my attention throughout the course. The first topic is preventing violence and injury. Violence is, â€Å"a set of behaviors that produces injuries, as well as the outcomes of these behaviors (the injuries themselves)† (Donatella, 2015)**. Violence can be caused by many factors. Those factors include cultural beliefs, discrimination, religious beliefs, and political differences as well as others. These factors are socially based issues that are triggered by beliefs within oneself and things such as anger, substance abuse and social pressure. The lack of control over one s emotions often times leads to hate crimes which is, â€Å"a crime targeted against a particular societal group and motivated by bias against that group† (Donatella, 2015)**. This can be manifested in many ways, for example gang violence, domestic violence and terrorism are the most recognizable in today’s society. In fact, one in three women and one in ten men have reported to have been victims of intimate partner violence. I n essence, violence and crime are within our reach of control within ourselves. Another aspect that is often out of our control is injury; it can be eitherShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement On Health And Wellness Essay1487 Words   |  6 PagesHealth has always been a topic that has fascinated me. When I think about about health and wellness, my mind goes directly to thoughts about eating vegetables and getting at least thirty minutes of exercise each and every day. And though those are important aspects of health, it does not mean I am fulfilling the area of my wellness. Wellness goes beyond the simplistic areas of general good health methods and dives deeper to personal decisions, hobbies, personality to balance the things that maintainRead MorePersonal Statement : Health And Wellness976 Words   |  4 Pagespublic health. I began my undergraduate career as a Viticulture and Enology major. I loved the idea of spending my days in a vineyard, nurturing grapes to maturity and then creating a final product that was entirely different from its humble beginning. It wasn’t until I was working in a lab at a winery that I realized winemaking was not for me. Although I loved the science involved, the career did not align with my social and environmental values. I was passionate about health and wellness, so theRead MoreHolistic Health Is Based On Many Different Aspects850 Words   |  4 PagesBefore I took the wellness index, I had no idea that holistic health is based on many different aspects. For example, I had no idea that finding meaning, or transcending played a big role in a person s holistic health. In addition, the results for some aspects also shocked me, and I need to work more on them. The first one I need to work on would be wellness and communication. In both my personal, and professional life I need to work on ways to communicate better so that everyone I work with isRead MoreThe Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality1429 Words   |  6 Pagesagency provides tools and resources to help health care organizations plan, implement, and evaluate health information technology. In addition, AHRQ also provide funds research health information technology to help improve the quality of health care. My Wellness Personal Record Systems or PHR was one of a research IT project funded by the AHRQ. The aims of this paper are to: (1) analyze the part the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) plays in health care information systems acquisition;Read MoreCase Analysis : Systems Acquisition1220 Words   |  5 Pages The Case Analysis: Systems Acquisition Courtney Givler MHA 616 Health Care Management Information Systems Instructor Deborah Bertsch May 9, 2016 The Case Analysis: Systems Acquisition For several years, the healthcare industry has focused on information technology for advancements. Now many health care leaders are seeking more complex information management processes. Information technology has advanced health care from a paper-based industry to a virtual enterprise. Providers areRead MoreAssessment of Personal Financial Wellness of Teachers1115 Words   |  5 Pagesof daily cash inflows and outflows in personal finances will help make tough situations less stressful and easier to handle. Cash (1996) Among five risk stressors in life ( relationships, work, health , crime/violence, amp; personal finance), personal finance was rated as the number one source of stress, concerns about personal finance are five times higher than those regarding health. Garman et al (1996) research has indicated a relation between personal finance stress and backache, alcoholismRead MoreAn Evaluation Will Be Deducted On The Health Inequalities Among Australians1689 Words   |  7 Pageswill be deducted on the health inequalities among Australians. Secondly, a further evaluation to appraise and identify the causes, scope and impact on the health and well-being of [the] individual (s), families and community. Thirdly, describe the paradigms and accountabilities that Government and non-Government Organisations [NGO] assume across community services and health sectors to improve the health and wellbeing of Australians. Additionally, reviewing the over-all health and wellbeing issues fromRead MoreAdolescent Females And Self Esteem1262 Words   |  6 PagesAdolescent Females to Build Self-Esteem Adolescent females often have to face physical and social changes that can affect their self-esteem. The self-esteem of an individual can affect his social relationships, work performance, and even physical health (Orth, Robins, Roberts, 2008). Those with low self-esteem are at a higher risk of attempting suicide and are more likely to suffer from depression (Sowislo Orth, 2012). Research has long attempted to discover whether self-esteem is a cause ofRead MoreEssay about Personal Nursing Philosophy748 Words   |  3 PagesMy Personal Nursing Philosophy Tracie Johnson NUR/391 June 28, 2010 Andrea M. Abt My Personal Nursing Philosophy â€Å"Philosophies of nursing are statements of beliefs about nursing and expressions of values in nursing that are used as bases for thinking and acting. Most philosophies are built on a foundation of beliefs about people, environment, health, and nursing† (Chitty amp; Black, p. 298). By using person, environment, health, and nursing as a guideline to achieve the ultimate goalsRead MoreWorkplace Wellness Essay1316 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION Health and wellness in the workplace is crucial to business success. Increasingly, it is recognized that the workplace itself has a powerful affect on people’s health. When people are satisfied with their job, they are more productive and tend to be healthier. When employees feel that the environment at work is negative, they feel stressed. Stress has a large impact on employee mental and physical health, and in turn, on productivity. Companies that promote healthy lifestyle habits

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Home from Home by Byrne and Kelly free essay sample

Home from Home is the first original song from the duo Byrne and Kelly. The group is made of up Neil Byrne, Ryan Kelly, Nicole Hudson, and Peter Sheridan from the Celtic group Celtic thunder. Ryan and Neil originally came up with the idea of performing together three years ago in 2012.Nicole and Peter didnt join them until recently. Their single Home from Home was released in June of 2015. There are many reasons why I love Home from Home. The first is that it is their first original single which givesa taste of what they have in their minds. Also, I love it because of medley of the song is catchy.I also love this song for the lyrics and the vocals. You can listen to the song on Youtube and buy it on CD Baby, Amazon, or itunes. Its a very great song and I hope that you will enjoy it as much as I do. We will write a custom essay sample on Home from Home by Byrne and Kelly or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Urban and Real Estate Information Technology Essay Example

Urban and Real Estate Information Technology Essay Urban real estate information systems: the suppression of radical innovation. John S Kirkwood School of Environment Development, Sheffield Hallam University E-mail: j. s. [emailprotected] ac. uk We will write a custom essay sample on Urban and Real Estate Information Technology specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Urban and Real Estate Information Technology specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Urban and Real Estate Information Technology specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer John S Kirkwood Abstract Information and communications technologies are continuing to bring about significant changes in society. These changes may be viewed as the direct consequence of technological advances, which in turn rely on scientific discovery. This paper adopts a different model predicated on the view that the rate of technological uptake depends upon recognising social and business needs and overcoming the barriers to innovation – particularly the forces that suppress radical potential. The validity and significance of this approach is examined by reference to real estate information systems. Keywords: real estate, property, innovation, information systems. Innovation brought about by new technology disrupts existing processes, practices and roles and produces either conscious or unconscious resistance by those who feel threatened. The introduction of a computerised national land information system, for example, impacts on the roles of professionals involved in real estate conveyancing, reveals information about land ownership that certain groups may prefer to remain secret, and requires government to devote limited resources to changes in legislation. Progress in all spheres of human activity necessitates change. It is impossible for either an individual or an organisation to improve by staying the same. No change may be an option but it involves risk because others may change and, in a competitive sense, move ahead. It has been suggested that continuous innovation is a pre-condition for sustaining competitive advantage (Porter, 1995) a view that is reinforced by the performance of high-technology companies, nourished by new ideas and their implementation (Manseau, 2001). As the real estate sector in the UK has adopted information and communications technology (ICT) more slowly than other sectors of the economy (Dixon, 1995; Cash, 1999), there is a need to understand fully the barriers to innovation. It is argued that new technologies are constrained and diffused only insofar as their potential for radical disruption is suppressed (Winston, 1996). Applying this model of the suppression of radical potential to real estate, it is suggested, provides a better understanding of the use of ICT within the industry, and aids the development of strategies to facilitate its use in more creative and appropriate ways. The approach adopted here consists of a review of the relevant literature to compare the merits of a model of innovation based on technological determinism with one that proposes that new technologies are only introduced when users are able to control their potential for radical disruption. This methodology is supported by the use of real estate examples. The objective is to stimulate debate and identify the case for further research, with the longer-term aim of improving performance in this sector. Innovation and diffusion Most new ideas essentially consist of technological innovation and it has been observed that we often use the words â€Å"innovation† and â€Å"technology† as synonyms (Rogers, 1995). ICTs in particular provide the opportunity for radical innovation in industries where information processing and knowledge management are core, such as the real estate sector. Technology is widely accepted as a major stimulus for change in society (Twiss, 1992) and in the second half of the 1980s information and communications technology (ICT) has provided more than just a new competitive weapon for commerce (Willcocks, 1997), it has led to the transformation of our material culture (Castells, 1996). As Freeman (1988) states: â€Å"The contemporary change of paradigm may be seen as a shift from a technology based primarily on cheap inputs of energy to one predominantly based on cheap inputs of information derived from advances in microelectronic and telecommunications technology. Since the development of microelectronics in the 1970s, some spectacular predictions have been made about the impact on society of the technologies of information processing and communication, with the terms Information Revolution and Information Society being commonplace (Negroponte, 1995; Leer, 2000). Other sources are more circumspect (Brown, 2002), arguing that the forces inv olved are more complex and less predictable than superficial analysis suggests. There is evidence all around us and throughout modern history that the impact of technology is often patchy and unpredictable. As Braudel (1979) has put it, â€Å"first the accelerator, then the brake†. And this is particularly so within the real estate sector in the United Kingdom, where the responses to the opportunities offered by ICT have been very mixed. Many commentators view technology as a driving force, its progress impeded only by the ignorance and stupidity of those unable to envision or adapt to the brave new world. The assumption behind this technological determinism is that new technology emerges from scientific study and then inevitably changes society, with most of us behaving like spectators (Williams, 1974). It is rather like arguing that people like stories because the printing press was invented. As Winston (1996) states: â€Å"The state of the market, or better, of society is the crucial factor in enabling the development and diffusion of any communications technology or in hindering it. † This is not to suggest that technology does not have an impact on how we live. Since the first Industrial Revolution in the last third of the eighteenth century technology has completely transformed the nature of society. But the rate of change in different geographical, economic and social sectors varies enormously. As Castells (1996) argues: â€Å"The interactivity of systems of technological innovation and their dependence on certain ‘milieux’ of exchange of ideas, problems, and solutions are critical features that can be generalised from the experience of past revolutions to the current one. In the case of technological innovation in real estate, an improved understanding of the social, cultural, economic and educational factors would permit a more accurate analysis of the rate of diffusion of information systems which may justify some positions in addition to identifying the barriers to change. Reflecting in general on the way technological developments unfold, the question that arises is whether they are â€Å"pushed† forward by the u narguable logic of being able to do things better, or â€Å"pulled† along by society’s needs, with some innovations accepted but others blocked? The technological determinists, who hold the former view, believe in that superior technologies will prevail, sooner or later. They concentrate on the virtues of the innovation and neglect the complexity of the diffusion process. The United Kingdom’s National Land Information System (NLIS) provides a useful illustration of the shortcomings of the concept of technological determinism, and provides an excellent example of the factors that may suppress innovation. It would also provide a useful research study, in the form of an international comparison of the introduction land information systems. The efficiency of the property market is dependent on good quality, accurate information that is available as conveniently as possible. Obviously a comprehensive, computerised system available throughout the country would be preferable to a collection of locally held, land registers or even a national system that is paper-based. The technology to accomplish the former has been available for a considerable length of time but NLIS is only just coming into being for England and Wales. In Scotland, in contrast, much more progress has been achieved, not because they know more about the technology, but because of a different legislative framework, and an alternative view of access to information. Dale (1997) highlighted this differing approach with the following example: â€Å"In England and Wales, the price paid for a property is still deemed to be secret, as is the amount for which it has been mortgaged. In Scotland, attitudes are different and such information is in the public domain. † The Sasine Register in Scotland (http://www. ros. gov. uk/) dates back to 1617. It is a register of transactions (deeds of sale, mortgages, etc) relating to land. The Scottish Land Register, which John S Kirkwood contains data from the Sasine Register, was established by the Land Registration (Scotland Act) 1979. The Association of Geographic Information website (http://www. agi. org. uk/case-studies) states: â€Å"The development of the innovative Registers Direct service will make this information readily accessible from a desktop computer equipped with a modem. Computerisation of the register began in the early 1980s and by 1983 all of the significant registers were being created and maintained on computer. † In contrast, it was only in July 2000 that there was an announcement by the Lord Chancellor that Macdonald Dettwiler had been selected as the preferred bidder to provide the NLIS hub services. (http://www. nlis. org. uk/docs/). Another illustration is the recent decision to establish an automated land information system for the Russian Federation (Corbley, 2002). The Land Reform Implementation Support programme (LARIS) is jointly funded by the World Bank and Russian government and is run by the Federal Land Cadastre Service (FLCS). As a preliminary to establishing the land information system it was recognised that reform of property rights and land transactions was fundamental to establishing a market economy, which itself depended on comprehensive political reform. The innovation is being driven by political, social and economic imperatives not technological development, although the latter forms an integral part of the mix. Real estate information systems The importance and significance of property has been recognised throughout history. It has been explained, for instance, that Sir John Fortescue demonstrated to Henry VI that his political stability and his capacity to maintain his estate were linked (Guy, 1988). As Denman (1978) has stated: Property is a social and juridical institution, a commonplace in the anatomy of all civilised societies. In human relationships it is a vehicle of power and in the land context a determinant of the occupation, possession and ownership of land. It has been estimated that real estate is the second or third largest contributor to overheads for most businesses (Roythorn, 1997). Another study reveals that more than half of the organisations interviewed claimed to have property assets worth 30% or more of their total asset value (Avis, 1989). Land is the source of all material wealth (Simpson, 1976) and as such it might be expected that rigorous efforts would be made to use ICT to aid the development, management and appraisal of real estate. Unfortunately, the evidence shows that in general within the United Kingdom the sector has been slow to innovate compared with other areas. Also, much of the innovation that has occurred has John S Kirkwood been driven by those operating on the fringe of the sector, such as property software companies and academics. It seems paradoxical that a sector that appears to be quintessentially an information-based industry should be so resistant to the opportunities provided by the Information Revolution. Understanding why this is so is not straightforward because of the complexities the real estate industry with its diversity of functionality and wide range of organisational type and the paucity of research on this topic. From the general literature on innovation it is reasonable to surmise that the suppression of the radical potential of ICT within real estate is caused by a combination of influences, including political, cultural, economic, financial and educational. In addition, there are issues related to balancing access to information and privacy, the application of standards (e. . for data transfer) and the degree of disruption caused by any new technology. These factors are commented on in the examples that follow but the author is cognisant of the need for further research aimed at removing barriers to innovation. There have been some notable successes using ICT within the real estate sector, both for industry-specific applications and for general-purpose office automation . Property management systems are now widespread, and there are numerous specialist computer packages for investment valuation, development appraisal and commercial and residential agency. Also, on-line, market intelligence systems, such as Estates Gazette Interactive and FOCUS, have emerged to exploit the power of the Internet. Similarly, the use of office automation tools, like word processing, spreadsheets and e-mail, is routine in real estate offices. But these â€Å"successes† have essentially been based upon the automation of mundane tasks rather than a genuinely innovative approach to real estate practice. There is evidence of a lack of a strategic vision within the sector (Dixon, 1998) and it has been shown that many organisations are a long way from realising the full potential of ICT (Waller, 2000). There is a parallel lack of emphasis on training and education to meet the demands of this new commercial environment. A survey conducted on behalf of the Property Computer Show in 1999 (Cash, 1999) revealed that 51% of the property firms interviewed had not spent a single day on ICT training during the previous 12 months. This lack of innovation is not unique to the UK. It has been reported (Han, 2001) that in Singapore’s property management companies, computer applications are lagging behind the advancement of computer hardware and software. Even in the US seen by some as the originator of the Information Revolution (Castells, 1996) it has been observed that resistance to technological advances penetrates the entire real estate sector (Sherwood, 2001). Another opinion is that far too many realtors view the technology as a threat, in much the same way as the Luddites of the first Industrial Revolution (Tuccillo, 2000). Incremental and disruptive technologies It is useful to make a distinction between incremental technological change and disruptive technological change (Norman, 1999). The adoption of the mobile telephone is an example of the former. Although real estate professionals have enthusiastically adopted the new technology they have continued to work within the traditional paradigm. In contrast, the use of ICT for the production of printed material (eg reports, brochures, journals) has fundamentally changed the process and significantly reduced the number of personnel required to undertake it (eg copy typists and printers). For example, when the first computerised composition system was introduced into the Estates Gazette offices in the early 1980s the workforce of printers needed to produce the journal was reduced from sixty to fifteen. Later the process of page composition was shifted from the print room to the desktop. The nature of this distinction requires further analysis. In the example cited the mobile telephone is used to facilitate, rather than replace, the activity being undertaken. The complex interaction that takes place between individuals in a business context (eg negotiations) is simply undertaken using a more convenient communications device – one that releases the parties from the restriction of specific locations. In the case of document production a completely new technological solution – desktop publishing has virtually replaced a traditional industry – printing. The scale of the disruption caused by this revolution was vividly highlighted by the industrial action that took place in the mid-1980s, when News International transferred the production of newspapers to Wapping. E-mail is another example of an incremental, non-disruptive technology that has been readily adopted by real estate professionals. Mercedes-Benz installed Verimation’s Memo office automation package as early as 1988 (Kirkwood, 1997) but it was not until the beginning of 2000 that e-mail was being used widely by UK real estate professionals, as reflected in an Estates Gazette survey (Kirkwood, 2000). The survey, undertaken in the form of a questionnaire faxed to 170

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Grammatical Function Definition and Examples

Grammatical Function Definition and Examples Grammatical function is the  syntactic role played by a word or phrase in the context of a particular clause or sentence. Sometimes called simply function. In English, grammatical function is primarily determined by a words position in a sentence, not by inflection (or word endings). Examples and Observations The five elements of clause structure, namely subject, verb, object, complement, and adverbial, are grammatical functions. In addition, we distinguish predicator as the function carried by the main verb in a clause, and predicate as the function assigned to the portion of a clause excluding the subject.​Within phrases, certain types of units can function as modifiers, more specifically as premodifiers or postmodifiers.There is no one-to-one correspondence between functions and their possible formal realizations. Thus the functions of subject and direct object are often realized by a noun phrase, but can also be realized by a clause. (Bas Aarts, Sylvia Chalker, and Edmund Weiner, The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2014.) Linguistic Context and Grammatical Function The production and interpretation of an utterance act is anchored to the constitutive parts of language: syntax, morphology, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. While syntax is composed of structural units, for instance, constituents in traditional grammar, phrases in functional grammar and generative grammar, groups in systemic functional grammar or constructions in construction grammar, it is the linear ordering of the individual parts within a hierarchically structured sequence which constitutes their grammatical function. The adverb really, for instance, realizes the grammatical function of a sentence adverbial with wide scope if positioned initially or finally, as is the case in the utterance really, Sarah is sweet. If the adverb really is positioned medially, it is assigned the grammatical function of the adverbial of subjunct with narrow scope, as in Sarah is really sweet. Or, the proper noun Mary can realize the grammatical function of object in Sally kissed Mary, and it ca n realize the grammatical function of subject in Mary kissed Sally. Thus, it is not the grammatical construction as such which is assigned a grammatical function. Rather, it is the positioning of a grammatical construction within a hierarchically structured sequence which assigns it a grammatical function. (Anita Fetzer, Contexts in Interaction: Relating Pragmatic Wastebaskets. What Is a Context?: Linguistic Approaches and Challenges, ed. by Rita Finkbeiner, Jà ¶rg Meibauer, and Petra B. Schumacher. John Benjamins, 2012.) The Grammatical Functions of Subjects The most complex grammatical function is that of subject. Consider the example in (1).(1) The tigers hunt prey at night.Tigers precedes the verb. It agrees with the verb in number, as becomes clear when it is made singular: The tiger hunts its prey at night. In the active construction, it is never marked by any preposition. The corresponding full passive clause ... is Prey is hunted by the tigers at night; in the passive clause, the subject of (1), the tigers, turns up inside the prepositional phrase by the tigers.The above criteria- agreement in number with the verb, never being preceded by a preposition, occurring in the by phrase in the passive- are grammatical, and the noun they pick out in a given clause is the grammatical subject of that clause. (Jim Miller, An Introduction to English Syntax. Edinburgh University Press, 2002.) The Grammatical Functions of Direct Objects and Indirect Objects In traditional grammatical descriptions, the grammatical function borne by her in the English example in (41) has sometimes been called the indirect object, and the book has been called the direct object:(41) He gave her a book.The phrase the book is also traditionally assumed to be the direct object in examples like (42):(42) He gave a book to her.The classification of the book as a direct object in both (41) and (42) may have a semantic rather than a syntactic basis: there may be a tendency to assume that the book must bear the same grammatical function in each instance because its semantic role does not change. ... [T]he LFG [lexical-functional grammar] view differs: in example (41), the phrase her bears the OBJ [object] function, while in example (42), the phrase a book is the OBJ.Within the transformational tradition, evidence for the LFG classification for English came from certain formulations of the rule of passivization, which applies uniformly to transform an object into a subject. (Mary Dalrymple, Lexical Functional Grammar. Emerald Group, 2001.)